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Case law

Definition of “persistent offending”:
L, R. v [2012] EWCA Crim 1336 at paragraph 11

Relevant age for the court’s sentencing powers (availability of youth sentences) is date of conviction:
R v Dennis Obasi [2014] EWCA Crim 581
R v Ghafoor (Imran Hussain) [2002] EWCA Crim 1857
R v Danga (Harbeer Singh) [1992] QB 1996

Welfare relevant factor for mitigation:
McCormick (Adam) v HM Advocate [2016] HCJAC 50 [case summary]
R(Smith) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2005] UKHL 51 [paragraph 25]


Overarching Principles Sentencing Children and Young People and offence specific guidelines for sexual offences and robbery – Definitive guidance, Sentencing Council, March 2017

Youth Court Bench Book, Judicial College, August 2017

Crown Court Compendium Part II: Sentencing, Judicial College, June 2018
YJLC commentary on Crown Court Sentencing Compendium

The Youth Rehabilitation Order: practice guidance for Youth Offending Teams Youth Justice Board, 2010

Briefing for YOTs on Children and Custodial Sentences for a Second Knife Offence, Standing Committee for Youth Justice, 13 October 2015

Referral Order Guidance, Ministry of Justice & Youth Justice Board, revised April 2015
– Availability and conditions at paragraph 3.1-3.16
– Flowchart at Annex B (pages 77 – 78)
– Custody threshold cases at paragraph 7.4-7.7
– Further offending at paragraph 10.1-10.11

Justices Clerks Society (JCS) News sheet on the Referral Order changes, April 2015